The Seven Emotions and Six Desires 七情六欲

Reader should refer to the following structure while reading the text commentaries below.






元神      -       灵         -     识神

 yuán shén           líng              shí shén

无感而生                             有感而生

 wú gǎn ér sheng                     yǒu gǎn ér shēng

无感而知                             有感而知

 wú gǎn ér zhī                         yǒu gǎn ér zhī

阴神                                有为有意

      yīn shén                            yǒu wéi yǒuyì

阳神                                 无为无意

     yáng shén                         wúwéi wúyì

神行于体外                         神行于体内

 shén xíng yú tǐwài               shén xíng yú tǐnèi

六感      -         灵      -       七情

liù gǎn             líng               qī qíng

      (生)眼,鼻,口,(或身),耳,舌,意(死)        喜,怒,悲,惊,忧,恐,思

(shēng) yǎn, bí, kǒu,(huò shēn), ěr, shé, yì (sǐ) xǐ, nù, bēi, jīng, yōu, kǒng, sī

六欲: 眼-视觉(色), 鼻-嗅觉(香), 口-触觉(感), 耳-听觉(声),舌-味觉(味), 意-意觉(神)

liùyù: Yǎn-shìjué (sè), bí-xiùjué (xiāng), kǒu-chùjué (gǎn), ěr-tīngjué (shēng), shé-wèijué (wèi), yì-yì jué (shén)

七情              内脏            明窍              颜色

qī qíng         nèizàng        míng qiào      yánsè

喜                伤 心               舌              红

xǐ               shāngxīn          shé              hóng

怒                伤 肝              目              绿

nù              shāng gān        mù              lǜ

悲,忧           伤 肺              鼻              白

bēi yōu         shāng fèi         bí               bái

惊,恐           伤 肾              耳               黑

jīngkǒng        shāng shèn         ěr              hēi

思               伤 脾胃             口              黄

sī          shāng píwèi       kǒu            huáng

情             伤 魂魄(心)        意              彩

qíng        shāng húnpò (xīn)   yì               cǎi

自觉,        感觉,      知觉,       无觉

zìjué,       gǎnjué,  zhījué,     wú jué


The Taoist world view of 神 Shen

There is a 神 Shen, an ultimate ruler and creator in each discrete and distinct universe. The human body is a defined universe and therefore has a Shen within and so when the body dies, the Shen will go away.

There are many 神 Shen, for example 山神 mountain Shen, 河神 river Shen, 树神 tree Shen including 神 Shen in each one of our internal organs.

The 神 Shen and 灵 Ling are not separable.

Generally, there are 2 types of Shen: 元神 Yuan Shen and 识神 Shi Shen and they are connected through the 灵 Ling.

For the 元神 Yuan Shen, there are 2 scenarios:

  • 无感而生 arising from without sensory perception or beyond sensory perception;
  • 无感而知 knowing from without sensory perception or beyond sensory perception.

The Yuan Shen can be further divided into 阴神 Yin Shen and 阳神 Yang Shen.

For the 识神 Shi Shen, there are also 2 scenarios:

  • 有感而生 arising from sensory perception;
  • 有感而知 knowing from sensory perception.

When you see images while in sitting meditation, are you aware of the image/scene on the cusp of it being formed (ie before manifestation) or are you aware of the image/scene only after it has manifested?

Further, the Shi Shen can have 2 types:

  • 有为有意 purposeful and intentional, with effort;
  • 无为无意 without purpose and intent, without effort.

The context for (ii) is that one becomes aligned with nature and her rhythms so you become one with the wave rather than riding or fighting against the wave. 无为 (ii) does not mean not having to do anything, it refers to a state of consciousness and accomplishment.

六欲 Six desires arise from the 六感 sensory organs: 眼 eyes, 鼻 nose, 口 mouth (or 身 body), 舌 tongue, 耳ears, 意 yi and are confined within the gates of 生 birth and 死 death. The six desires are triggered when 神行于体外 the Shen is moving outside the physical body. First the 触觉 sensory inputs such as smell, taste, sight & hearing (through our sensory organs) from the visible surrounding (ie 身边 and not just anywhere outside the physical body 身外 which covers a much wider and further range by definition ) come in contact with our physical body and then from that we have a 感觉 sense of feeling. So if we are in a room then our range of perception will be much limited. Depending on whether this external stimulus is located far away or near-by, strong intensity or weak intensity, all in relative terms– this would lead to 色变 so everyone perceives the world differently.

As long as we have a physical body, we will have desires. These desires will lead to 7 emotions within our body.

Seven emotions: 喜 pleasure, 怒 anger, 悲 sorrow, 惊 fright, 忧 worry, 恐 fear, 思 thought. The seven emotions are triggered when 神行于体内 the Shen is moving within the physical body. When these emotions are out of balanced, people around us and the corresponding internal organ will be affected negatively.

The Six desires and seven emotions will color our overall perception of the world through 自觉(sense of self awareness), 感觉(sense of feeling), 知觉(sense of knowing),无觉(state beyond senses).

Emotion Internal Organ Linked Sensory organ Color
 Pleasure  Heart  Tongue  Red
 Anger  Liver  Eye  Green
 Sorrow/Worry  Lungs  Nose  White
 Thought  Spleen  Mouth  Yellow
 Fright/Fear  Kidney  Ear  Black

For the taoists, this is not merely a philosophical discourse, there are direct implications and applications to the practice of alchemy.

First the human universe is sealed off from the surrounding environment: eyes look within (preserves liver and reduces anger), ears hear within (preserves kidney and reduces fright/fear), nose not smelling outside (preserves lung and reduces sorrow/worry), mouth sealed (preserves spleen and reduces thoughts), tongue touching upper palette, 意念 yi nian/focus turned inward on own body/inside the body. The 7 emotions will be influenced/affected by the 6 desires and vice versa.

Everything is interlinked!

爱 Love is not part of the seven emotions but is implied (hidden) in the six desires 意 yi.(意里藏爱)。爱不是情,有意才有情,没意就无情。爱中不一定有情,但爱是在感里出现。有情不一定有爱。如爱在七情里-> 思 -> 病

So practitioner creates a sealed off universe within the body and uses the human universe as a basis to discover and know the World 感悟(性功) beyond the normal sensory organs 感觉(命功). And this will give you lots of inspiration 感悟中灵感 . Discover the extraordinary from the ordinary and integrate the extraordinary back into the ordinary 从感觉(平凡)找感悟(超自然),从超自然再回来找自己的感觉. In short, both 性功命功 are needed.

Normally the six desires and seven emotions are dynamic, generally balanced out although one affects the other. The practice aims to disrupt this balance. Desires will be greatly enhanced e.g. desire to succeed in the training, creating something out of nothing and/or achieve things ordinarily not possible. The following are examples where the practitioners are able to experience when the sensory organs are sealed off during sitting;

(a)  下田 Xia Tian begins to pulsate and move in 小腹 xiaofu cavity;

(b)  Shifting of the heart beat from left side of chest to mid line and then down to 下田 Xia Tian. And being able to hear the pulse at mid line as well as down in 下田 Xia Tian.

(c)  Detecting the astral/etheric body (有形无质 with form and no substance) and causing this layer to breathe and under our conscious control. The aura is part of this layer. The aura is the layer of light between the physical body and the etheric/astral body. The light/aura can be of different colour and size at different time and different for each person.

Achieving these feats will cause you to have cellular memory of the experiences and through this have an even greater desire to achieve more. 从无到有,从有到得

Note that in this instance the desires referred here are beyond human emotions 无情欲望 (cf 大道无情无义 Having the same characteristics as the Dao )and are qualitatively different from those desires that arise from sensory organs 有情欲望


Where to look for the Shen?

How to seek this Shen?

How do you know that it is your Shen communicating with you and not some entity outside of yourself?

Seal sensory organs and 下三阴 lower 3 yin (前阴 front yin, 后阴 back yin and 会阴 huiyin) – this creates changes inside the body and triggers the seven emotions. Here the emotions will be relatively balanced,干净 “clean and pure” and will not potentially harm the internal organs.

Stabilize body and activate pore breathing, gradually shift from normal breathing to inner breathing and True breathing.

Once the practitioner’s own human universe is properly sealed, the emotions and desires will be more stabilized and this will allow the 神光 Shen Guang to enter from 天目 Tian Mu directly into the 下田 Xia Tian。 Otherwise the light may be directed to the organ that has the corresponding emotion out of balanced rather than into the 小腹 Xiao Fu cavity eg if practitioner is feeling anger, the 神光 Shen Guang will end up in the liver instead of the 下田 Xia Tian.

The method to attain emptiness /void:

Compress the 3 cavities (3D sphere) and connecting all 3 cavities into 1 inner cavity. Continue to compress.

Compress the human universe, training space and cosmic space and connect all 3 spaces (3D sphere) into 1.

If the above are done properly, we can see:

  • a glow of light around practitioner’s body;.
  • a well formed layer (with form but no substance) outside the physical body.

Ideally practitioner should progress to next stage of practice when these benchmarks are met.

Increase length of time for sitting, keeping still despite pain in the legs causes:

  • the 元神 Yuan Shen to separate from 识神 Shi Shen;
  • the form without substance (astral/etheric body) part of our anatomy to separate from the physical body.

Guided meditation: intentionally use 识神 Shi Shen to guide 元神 Yuan Shen by executing guided meditation instructions one after another.

When awake you see images/scene in sitting/sleeping practice and/or you see images/scene outside your body: 阳神 Yang Shen.

When asleep you see images/scene in sitting/sleeping practice and/or you see images/scene within body: 阴神 Yin Shen.

When you can see images/scenes during sitting and not during mirror practice: too much 识神 Shi Shen, too forceful and anxious to get result.

Purpose of practice is to :

  • enable the 神 Shen to experience pain,
  • attain the 无觉 State Beyond senses,
  • attain 无觉的爱 love in the state beyond senses (the parent’s love for their children is no where near this state),
  • attain state of Emptiness/Void, return to become Light/energy (to be all present and everywhere at once).

As you progress towards the 无觉 State Beyond senses, then your sense of self awareness (自觉), sense of knowing (知觉) and sense of feeling (感觉)are less likely to be in error and more in touch with reality.

All of this is applicable and must be integrated into your daily lives so that you become a better Man. Taoists believe that until you become a True Man by finding your 真我 True Self, you are not really fully human 是人可是还不算成人. 心化藏而变质成人,神化藏而变形成仙,灵化藏而变光成道:三个条件具备就是真人。

The following 3 conditions must be met before the True Self is revealed:

  • the 心 heart transforms, becomes hidden, causes a change in substance to become human;
  • the 神 Shen transforms, becomes hidden, causes a change in the form/shape to become immortal;
  • the 灵 Ling transforms, becomes hidden, causes a change in the light to become one with the Tao.

Taoist Retreat (闭关) and Bi Gu (辟谷)

Text translated from the blue book from Jinhua 2012 by B K Wee

Bi Guan (闭关) literally means closing the door to worldly matters. It is a purpose-driven exercise to achieve specific results in inner alchemy. The phrase 闭关 was first documented in the Jing Dynasty (晋朝). According to Taoist practitioners, there are major retreats and minor retreats. Major retreats are held in deep mountains, while minor retreats are conducted inside Taoist temples. It is not a necessary criterion that retreats are done in seclusion. When a group of people come together, maintain silence, and explore the effects on one another, this can also be considered a type of retreat. However, contact with other human beings and the outside world is limited and restricted. During a retreat, contact is maintained only with fellow retreat practitioners. From this point of view, there are group retreats, single retreats and retreats done in seclusion.

Certain conditions and environments are necessary for a retreat. During a retreat, one of the key goals is to master the ability to freely interchange and transform the following three types of energy: Cosmic Energy (宇宙能量), Reincarnation Energy (转世能量), and Existential Energy (本体能量). More specifically, the practitioner needs to master the process to transmute Jing (精) into Qi (气), from Qi (气) into Shen (神) and finally returning Shen (神) to Qi (气) and Qi (气) back to Jing (精). If this is not achieved, then the whole process cannot be deemed to be a proper retreat. There are also different types of retreat for the Shen (辟神谷), Qi (辟气谷) and Jing (辟精谷).

The Taoists believe that retreats have to follow certain principles and observe certain rules and methods so that the practitioner can be successful. Practitioners must attain a certain level of merit, virtue and wisdom before they are qualified to participate in a retreat. This is because their actions will have a beneficial impact on all sentient beings. Ordinary folks are only qualified to do the self-reflection and repentance practice (悔过).

If a practitioner has liver imbalances, then, even though he undertakes fasting, he or she must consume something that will nourish the liver. Practitioners with heart problems must also do the “single stroke tree practice” (单劈掌). For those with stomach and liver issues, they are recommended to also do the “double push meridian tree practice” (双推脉).

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Delphi and Mount Parnassus (where 2016 seminar is happening)

( source )

One hundred miles northwest of Athens, soaring high above the Gulf of Corinth, stands the holy mountain called Parnassus. Nestled amidst the pine forested slopes and rocky crags of the sacred peak are the beautiful and exceptionally well-preserved ruins of Delphi. A city of wondrous artistic achievements and grand athletic spectacles during the flowering of Greek culture in the first millennium BC, Delphi is best known, however, as the supreme oracle site of the ancient Mediterranean world.

According to the earliest legends the site was originally a sacred place of the earth goddess Gaia (also called Ge) and was guarded by her daughter, the serpent Python. Later legends state that the site was the center of the world as determined by the god Zeus. Two eagles (or ravens) had been released by Zeus from opposite ends of the earth and following great flights across the skies they finally met at Delphi. A still later legend relates that Apollo, the son of Zeus, came from his home atop Mt. Olympus to Mt. Parnassus to slay the great serpent Python. Fleeing from the peak, Python sought safety in the sanctuary of the Earth Mother at Delphi. Apollo relentlessly pursued Python, however, and claimed the site. Later repenting of his crime, Apollo purified himself (on the island of Crete) and, returning to Delphi, persuaded Pan (the goat-god of wild places and evocative music) to reveal to him the art of prophecy. Upon the site of his battle, Apollo erected his own oracular temple (orienting its axis to align with midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset) and, at the exact place where he had ‘speared’ the serpent, an omphalos stone was set in the ground.

This omphalos stone (meaning ‘center of the earth’ to the ancient Greeks) later became the center of the inner sanctum of the shrine of the Delphic oracle. The site was originally called Pytho, after the guardian serpent. It was renamed Delphi after the dolphin (delphis in Greek), whose form Apollo took in order to bring Cretan sailors to Delphi so that they might become priests in his new temple. Regarding the omphalos, one legend tells that the original stone, now lost, was a large meteorite fallen from the sky in deepest antiquity, while another legend says it was the first physical object to emerge on dry land after the waters of the Deluge had settled. The omphalos stone currently on display in the Delphi museum, while very old and indeed from Delphi, is thus not the original sacred stone. It is interesting to inspect this exhibited stone however, for its conical form and sculptural designs derive from the old pillar and tree worship of the prehistoric goddess cults.

Archaeologically (as contrasted to the mythological discussion above) we know but little about the early beginnings of Delphi. Excavations have revealed the site was a Mycenean village from 1500 to 1100 BC, during which time the primary religious emphasis was on an oracular cult of the Earth Goddess. Around 1000 BC the worship of Apollo became dominant when this new god was introduced by either the Dorians or other people from the northern region of Greece. The oracular use of the site continued during Apollo’s occupation and, through the endeavors of politically astute priests, Delphi achieved Panhellenic fame as a major oracle shrine by the 7th century BC.

Women, who were considered more sensitive than men to the oracular powers of the site, would first bathe in the waters of the nearby sacred Castalian spring (said to have been created when the winged-horse Pegasus struck the ground with his hoof, and to be favored by the Muses). Next they would drink from the sacred Kassotis spring, inhale the fumes of burning laurel leaves and finally, sitting in meditation near the omphalos stone, would enter into a visionary trance state. Many archaic accounts of Delphi relate that the oracular priestesses, known as Pythia, sat upon a tripod-legged chair situated over a fissure in the earth from which emanated trance-inducing vapors. Plutarch (46 – 120 AD), a Greek philosopher who served as a priest at Delphi, and Strabo (64 BC – 25AD), an ancient geographer, each told of vaporous fumes, known as pneuma, which caused the visionary trance states. Plutarch also commented that the vapors had a sweet smell and that the oracular priestesses, after inhaling them, often behaved like runners after a race or dancers after ecstatic dancing. A traveler in the generation after Plutarch noted that the Kassotis spring, on the slope above the temple, disappeared underground and then emerged again in the adyton, this being the room inside the temple of Apollo where the oracular priestesses sat. It is interesting to note that the word pneuma, meaning gas, vapor and breath, gave rise to the English words pneumonia and pneumatic. It is also believed by some, to be the same phenomenon that is referred to as Qi, Chi, Prana, etc. in other cultures.

Questions regarding the future would be asked of the oracular priestesses. The answers, interpreted by male priests and then spoken in verse, proved so accurate that the Delphic oracle came to exercise enormous political and social influence in the Greek empire for nearly a thousand years. Historical sources indicate that the Delphic oracle was open only one day per month during the nine months of the year when Apollo was considered to be resident at the site. For a variety of reasons the Delphic oracle was in decline by the 1st century AD and the last recorded oracle was in 362 AD. The Christian emperor Theodosius officially closed the vast temple in 393 AD, thereby signaling the end of the ancient tradition of Greek oracles and the ascendancy of the new god of Christianity. Delphi was abandoned to the elements and gradually fell into ruins.

Peering through the veils of legend and myth we may discern at Delphi the story of an ancient goddess site being later taken over by a culture whose primary deity was a male god. The ‘spearing’ of the serpent may be interpreted as the marking of the energy beam point (a small area of concentrated energy at a power place) with a spear of stone and also the symbol of the masculine usurpation of a feminine deity shrine. The omphalos stone, and the earlier marker stone it replaced, were used to gather, concentrate and emanate the energies of the power place for the benefit of the local people. From earliest times the particular energy of the site, as well as the vapors rising from deep within the earth, had been recognized to induce prophetic visions in people and as a consequence a quasi-religious cult had developed over time.

The Tholos temple at the Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, with the sacred Mt. Parnassus is located roughly one-half mile from the main concentration of buildings at Delphi. Athena Pronaia was the gateway to Delphi. The site, having been occupied since the Neolithic Period (5000-3000 BC) and later by the Myceneans, may actually predate Delphi as a sacred place. Originally dedicated to the worship of an Earth Goddess, the shrine was eventually occupied by Olympian deities, Athena in particular. A guardian of wisdom and spiritual consciousness, Athena continued the ancient veneration of the feminine principle and brought devotion to the Earth Mother into the Classical Age of Greece. The Tholos temple, built in the early 4th century BC, has an unusual circular shape. This shape and the leaf-adorned capitals of its Corinthian columns are representations of the sacred forest groves of the old Earth Goddess religion. Writing in The Earth, The Temple, and The Gods, Vincent Skully comments that

“The omphalos, or navel, which was supposed to mark the center of the world, was kept in the sanctuary of Apollo’s temple itself (in the center of nearby Delphi), but the Tholos of Athena’s sanctuary more clearly seems to evoke the navel of the earth than does any other building there.”

Mt. Parnassus, in addition to its other mythological associations, holds a similar position in Greek legends as Mt. Ararat holds in the Old Testament. After the waters of a great flood receded, an ark-like boat carrying Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha landed on Mt. Parnassus. High upon the mountain, Deucalion sought advice from Themis, a resident earth goddess, regarding how to repopulate the earth with humans. Themis instructed Deucalion and Pyrrha to throw rocks over their shoulder, these being the “bones” of the Earth Mother, and that the stones would be transformed into the first human beings. Themis (who was another daughter of Gaia, by Uranus) also figures in an alternate legend of the Delphic oracle. In this account, Themis succeeded Gaia as the guardian of sacred Mt. Parnassus and later instructed Apollo in the arts of prophecy. In these myths, Apollo does not kill the serpent Python, but rather an evil dragoness known as Delphyne. Python then becomes the guardian of Apollo’s oracular temple, while Themis continues to reside upon Mt. Parnassus. Mt. Parnassus is also the legendary home of the Muses (three or nine in number according to different legends), these being divine singers and musicians whose music enchanted the gods. The association of the Muses with the mountain has made it a source of poetic inspiration and the favored pilgrimage destination of poets.

Advanced seminar – a student’s report

Disclaimer: all pictures in this article or this website were public pictures taken during various seminars and were distributed among students. As a courtesy service, if you wish a certain picture removed for privacy reasons please write an email to with your request.

The actual title of the event is “Chinese Taoist Retreat Experiencing Camp and Inner Alchemy Seminar” therefore we will experience the taoist life in the temple and will perform the advanced inner alchemy seminar at the same time. The following is an account of the first part, i.e. the description of my findings about the taoist style of life…

Day -1

We arrived in China and we are still one day ahead of the first advanced seminar I got in longmen practice. This is done for the first time in the temple for us, the foreign students. Of course there were foreign students there before but the way it is organized now is new for us…

I heared today about some of the retreat rules: No speak. No look. No interact.

No speak means to keep quiet at all times. If master says hello the student should remain quiet. Or he gets punished by kneeling while an incense stick burns out, which takes about 45 minutes 🙂

No look means do not stare at others. If you intersect someone on your way just lower your sight.

No interact means to try to help yourself with your living. Wash your own clothes, clean your own room and bed. Do not complain. (Thanks God/Dao they have a cook already!)

We will wear some Taoist outfit, already prepared for us by the monks.

Our group is very intersting, we are from many European countries (Holland, UK, Germany, Sweden, Bulgaria and Romania) but we have one colleague from Brazil as well. Tommorow our group will join a North-American group to fill up the 20 seats advanced seminar in the taoist temple situated in Jinhua, Zhejiang province…

Day 0

We arrived at the temple in Jinhua. The high speed train ride was smooth and comfortable and the people at the temple waited for us with few small cars and drove us about 30 minutes away on the mountain where the temple is situated.

Here we found very nice rooms, the whole building is new, all furniture is new an nice. As we already knew, in this province buildings lack the heating system so we live at the nature’s temperature, between 10 and 20 degrees Celsius, keeping the warm inside only requires to close all windows. It is true, we have enough thick blankets on the bed. Oh, on the wooden bed – some of them must go under!…

Food is strictly vegetarian but the quality is good and everyone seems to like it. A little rain in the evening brought us umbrellas and rechargeable torches – those will come in hand for the cave practice.

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Romania audio files

Here are enhanced audio files from Romania 2011 seminar in mp3 format. They can be played from the web browser or can be downloaded for more convenience. Please do not distribute to other people except Master Wang students.

Please come back to this post from time to time to check the new files that will be added after they got processed.

Usage instructions

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Audio files

[sc_embed_player fileurl=””] Morning meditation from the 10th day of the seminar in Apple format m4a
[sc_embed_player fileurl=”″] This is the morning meditation from the 10th day of the seminar in mp3 format
Download an audio transcript here WLP-1.37h-16bit.pdf
List of technical enhancements:

  1. Noise removal
  2. Reduced dynamic range
  3. Amplitude normalization (since master was walking all the places in the classroom his voice volume varied greatly on the raw record)
  4. Waveform trimming

Please note that the files will play a constant voice volume, however it may happen to hear background noise at higher intensity than expected.

Sweden Audio Files

Here are enhanced audio files from Sweden 2011 seminar in mp3 format. They can be played from the web browser or can be downloaded for more convenience. Please do not distribute to other people except Master Wang students.

Please come back to this post from time to time to check the new files that will be added after they got processed.

Usage instructions

You may download or play any audio file listed below. Download links appears after the files start to play.

If you try to play any file and the player does not produce any sound it means you are not logged in or your account does not have the required access permission. Only Longmen students can access the audio files.

Audio files

[sc_embed_player fileurl=”2 Hours Meditation@”] Morning meditation from the 6th day of the seminar in Apple format m4a.
[sc_embed_player fileurl=”2 Hours Meditation@″] Morning meditation from the 6th day of the seminar in mp3 format.
List of technical enhancements:

  1. Noise removal
  2. Amplitude normalization (since master was walking all the places in the classroom his voice volume varied greatly on the raw record)
  3. Waveform trimming

Please note that the files will play a constant voice volume, however it may happen to hear background noise at higher intensity than expected.

2011 Seminar in Romania

Pictures from 2011 seminar held in Romania.

Below is some downloadable content:

Fire party (9MB)
Ping Heng Gong (31MB)
Meditation Room (10MB)
Daoist walking (4MB)


Sweden seminar group picture

2011 Seminar in Sweden

Here are some pictures from the 2011 seminar in Sweden. This topic will be further expanded.

Below registered users (seminar students) can download a collection of pictures at high resolution taken during the seminar in Sweden. User registration will be moderated.

Sweden 2011 Seminar HighRes Pics Archive (69MB)
Stockholm Visit 23.09 (63MB)